Gut Health Supplements

Reduce Inflammation 

  1. Krill Oil: My primary source for omega 3 fatty acids is eating wild caught salmon 3 times a week but when I was severely ill I included Krill Oil for a limited time. Within the brain, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is the major omega-3 comprising about 10–15% of all fatty acids and over 50% of all brain PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids).12
  2. Meriva: Meriva is a lecithin based delivery system of curcumin. This form of curcumin is easier to digest than curcumin and therefore more effective in regard to several issues including psoriasis69 and BPH.70
  3. Magnesium Threonate (MgT): Magnesium is important in more than 300 chemical reactions that keep the body working properly.71 Magnesium Threonate is a relatively new form of magnesium which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is shown effective in reducing Aβ-plaque, preventing synapse loss and memory decline in the transgenic mice. Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when the treatment was given to the mice at the end-stage of their Alzheimer’s disease-like pathological progression.72 What this translates to is reduced brain fog brought on by the non-diagnosed gut dysbiosis. The multivitamin below has 50% of the daily value of magnesium which I found was not enough.
  4. Ginger: Ginger and its constituents show a vital role as anti-inflammatory processes.  Ginger also shows antimicrobial and other biological activities due gingerol and paradol, shogaols and zingerone.76 Ginger significantly improves the symptoms of nausea when compared to placebo.77 I tried to do ginger shots and added raw ginger to my smoothies when possible. 
  5. Multivitamin: When dysbiosis occurs inflammation can lead to malabsorption of vitamins and minerals which can then lead to more inflammation. Vitamin D, for instance, modulates contraction, inflammation and remodeling tissue. Mast cells are activated by oxidized lipoproteins, resulting in increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and suggesting that the reduction of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein by vitamin E may also reduce mast cell activation. vitamin C improves the function of the human immune system, such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation.38 I could write a dissertation on this but I believe the point is driven home. It is important not to take to many fat-soluble vitamins which are K A D and E., In my opinion, it is the safest and most practical to simply take a proven multivitamin. 
  6. Vitamin D3: Vitamin D regulates epithelial cell integrity, innate immune responses, and the composition of the gut microbiota. Overall vitamin D regulates multiple pathways that maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis.65 The Endocrine Society issued clinical practice guidelines for vitamin D, and they recommend 1500iu to 2000iu per day.66
    Warning: 4000iu of vitamin D per day is considered to be toxic.
  7. Organic Psyllium Husk: Psyllium has anti-inflammatory activity that can modulate the function of cytokines.39 I use Psyllium Husk twice a week. I did not take the recommended dose of two tablespoons, instead, I use one heaping tablespoon.

Repair the Gut

An imbalanced microbiota can cause a widening in the tight junctions of the intestinal barrier and possibly lead to autoimmune disease.19 This increase in intestinal permeability is commonly referred to as leaky gut. Candida which is an overgrowth of yeast and naturally occurs in most people can also contribute to leaky gut. I had all the perquisites for Candida and had blood and stool tests for it but it always came back negative. I consistently saw evidence of Candida in stool so I treated myself as though I had it. False negatives are very common when testing for Candida because there are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans.20 Tests will usually only be for the most common species of Candida.

When repairing the gut one must address the support system for yeast overgrowth, fungus and other pathogenic bacteria which is keeping the gut microbiota from rebalancing itself. The trick is to destroy the bad bacteria while leaving the good bacteria intact. The dilemma when addressing this is even the most potent herbal and pharmaceutical antibiotics may not be able to kill the supporting bacteria. In fact, antibiotics are responsible for the most resistant bacteria by causing it to form a biofilm.21

Biofilm Bacteria

Biofilms are adherent aggregates of bacterial cells that form on biotic and abiotic surfaces, including human tissues. Biofilm formation can be a specific, defensive reaction to the presence of antibiotics and biofilms resist antibiotic treatment and contribute to bacterial persistence in chronic infections.21 Antibiotics, antimicrobials, and antifungals may not be of any use if the bacteria has shielded itself with a robust biofilm. Using supplements, the body sees as food and have no known side effects except for die off, in my opinion is the best course of action.

Biofilm Disrupters

Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate Monoester)

Glycerol monolaurate monoester (GML) also known as monolaurin and its component lauric acid were bactericidal for antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. GML has antimicrobial activity against enveloped viruses and a variety of bacteria, including some Gram-negative bacteria and some Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus.24

  1. GML appears to target many bacterial surface signal transduction systems nonspecifically through interaction with plasma membranes.25
  2. GML is bactericidal for aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in broth and biofilm cultures.25
  3. GML does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity.67
  4. GML does not inhibit the growth of lactobacilli which includes lactobacillus acidophilus.68

Warning: The same warning applies here as it did for the coconut oil, start slowly. I started out with Sun Monolaurin which is 1100 milligrams per dose. I started this July, 18th 2015 and noticed an immediate difference in the way I felt. I did not experience any die off. A month later I tried Lauricidin which is a brand name for monolaurin developed by Jon J. Kabara, PhD who discovered monolaurin in the 1960’s. Within two days I was taking the full dose of Lauricidin which was 3 grams three times a day. When this 7 ounces was gone I switched back to the Sun Monolaurin and a month later bought 21 ounces of Ultimate Monolaurin. After this was gone I switched back to Sun Monolaurin once again. I could not tell the difference between the Sun Monolaurin and the other two brands but this is not to say there is a difference.

Lactoferrin (Apolactoferrin)

  1. Anti-biofilm efficacy has been demonstrated for lactoferrin and its derivatives.26
  2. Lactoferrin inhibits biofilm formation and disrupts existing biofilms either by preventing lectin-dependent bacterial adhesion or stimulating bacterial motility.26
  3. Lactoferrin appears to inhibit bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa.26

I used Apolactoferrin (ALF) because it is the iron-depleted form of lactoferrin and is bactericidal against pneumococci and several other species of bacteria.40 Like monolaurin lactoferrin has many other benefits but I decided to stay focused on the singular benefits of how they can heal the gut. Both monolaurin and lactoferrin are components of human breast milk.

Hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA):

  1. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and the evidence is significant.73
  2. HICA has a significant inhibitory effect on biofilm formation at acidic pH, at neutral pH, reduces the Mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms and caused structural defects to intact C. albicans biofilms.74
  3. As an added bonus HICA increases lean mass.75

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

  1. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent that has anti-bacterial properties.27
  2. NAC decreases biofilm formation by a variety of bacteria and reduces the production of an extracellular polysaccharide matrix while promoting the disruption of mature biofilms.27
  3. NAC is an antioxidant with a well-established mechanism of action, based on its ability to restore glutathione levels and act as a free radical scavenger.28

Warning: I took monolaurin, lactoferrin, and NAC every day and became significantly ill after about three weeks. I dropped the NAC and got better. I believe the combination of these three was just a little to potent. I started the NAC again after I finished the second bottle of Lactoferrin. Another good reason to work closely with your functional medicine practitioner. I took monolaurin, lactoferrin, and HICA together without a problem.

Probiotics

I am only including the brands I consider to have worked the best in regard to killing pathogens and rebalancing the microbiota.

S. Boulardii: Even though S. Boulardii is a yeast which is a type of fungus and measured in cells instead of CFU’s (colony forming units) it is many times included and measured as if it was a probiotic.

Dr. Formulated 90 Billion CFU: I found a combination of this probiotic and the one below to be the most effective.

Dr. Formulated Once Daily Women's 50 Billion CFU: This is another one of Dr. Perlmutter’s formulated probiotics with all seven essential probiotics. It is only missing the S. Boulardii.

Warning: The same rule applies here as it does for any type of coconut product. You must start slowly because probiotics have the potential to make you sick. There is also a warning with virtually every probiotic and that is what other ingredients they may have. I believe a probiotic should be just that without any other ingredients. This is why the last two probiotics listed above are now my first choice especially when used in large amounts. They contain only pro and prebiotics.

  1. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain
  2. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research.
  3. Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction
  4. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report.
  5. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.
  6. Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.
  7. In vitro and in vivo effects of two coconut oils in comparison to monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: rodent studies.
  8. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders
  9. Candidiasis
  10. Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm formation.
  11. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease
  12. Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms
  13. Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms
  14. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures
  15. Lactoferrin: A bioinspired, anti-biofilm therapeutic
  16. N-acetylcysteine inhibit biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  17. N-acetylcysteine modulates angiogenesis and vasodilation in stomach such as DNA damage in blood of portal hypertensive rats
  18. Glutamine Restores Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 Expression in Colonic Mucosa of Patients With Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
  19. Glutamine supplementation attenuates ethanol-induced disruption of apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and ameliorates gut barrier dysfunction and fatty liver in mice.
  20. Oral supplementation with L-glutamine alters gut microbiota of obese and overweight adults: A pilot study.
  21. Glucosamine-chondroitin sulphate accelerates tendon-to-bone healing in rabbits.
  22. What Is The Lymphatic System?
  23. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.
  24. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.
  25. Stress and hormones
  26. Caffeine Stimulation of Cortisol Secretion Across the Waking Hours in Relation to Caffeine Intake Levels
  27. Role of vitamins D, E and C in immunity and inflammation.
  28. Immunomodulatory Effects of Psyllium Extract on Helicobacter pylori Interaction With Gastric Epithelial Cells.
  29. PspA Protects Streptococcus pneumoniae from Killing by Apolactoferrin, and Antibody to PspA Enhances Killing of Pneumococci by Apolactoferrin
  30. Parasites (PDF)
  31. Saccharomyces boulardii
  32. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children.
  33. High-fat-diet-induced obesity is associated with decreased antiinflammatory Lactobacillus reuteri sensitive to oxidative stress in mouse Peyer's patches.
  34. Synbiotic approach restores intestinal homeostasis and prolongs survival in leukaemic mice with cachexia.
  35. Social stress-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is CCL2-dependent and attenuated by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.
  36. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.
  37. Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: in vitro and in vivo evidence.
  38. Lactic acid bacteria protect human intestinal epithelial cells from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.
  39. In vitro evaluation of anticancer properties of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus in colon cancer cell lines.
  40. Advancing the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A for the treatment of intestinal disorders in humans.
  41. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on Intestine Mucosal Immunity in Immunosuppressed Mice.
  42. Psychotropic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 in early life-stressed and naïve adult mice.
  43. Priming of the Respiratory Tract with Immunobiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Limits Infection of Alveolar Macrophages with Recombinant Pneumonia Virus of Mice (rK2-PVM).
  44. Draft Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis Strain 15f: Focusing on Neurotransmitter Genes
  45. GABA
  46. Influence of Lactobacillus brevis 15 and Lactobacillus plantarum 13 on blood glucose and body weight in rats after high-fructose diet.
  47. Short- and long-term dynamics in the intestinal microbiota following ingestion of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis GCL2505.
  48. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.
  49. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood.
  50. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.
  51. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut–brain communication
  52. Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum alters gut luminal metabolism through modification of the gut microbial community
  53. Probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum) Increase Bone Mass Density and Upregulate Sparc and Bmp-2 Genes in Rats with Bone Loss Resulting from Ovariectomy
  54. Vitamin D, immune regulation, the microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease
  55. Vitamin D
  56. Glycerol Monolaurate Does Not Alter Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Vaginal Lactobacilli and Is Safe for Chronic Use
  57. The Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Subtilosin Acts Synergistically with Glycerol Monolaurate, Lauric Arginate, and ε-Poly-l-Lysine against Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Pathogens but Not Human Lactobacilli
  58. Oral Curcumin (Meriva) Is Effective as an Adjuvant Treatment and Is Able to Reduce IL-22 Serum Levels in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris
  59. Meriva®, a lecithinized curcumin delivery system, in the control of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a pilot, product evaluation registry study.
  60. Magnesium
  61. Elevation of brain magnesium prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model
  62. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins
  63. A Novel Antifungal Is Active against Candida albicans Biofilms and Inhibits Mutagenic Acetaldehyde Production In Vitro
  64. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes
  65. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities
  66. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting